World Russia wants to cut itself off from the global internet. Here’s what that really means. -

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kiwifarms.net
Full article here.
In the next two weeks, Russia is planning to attempt something no other country has tried before. It’s going to test whether it can disconnect from the rest of the world electronically while keeping the internet running for its citizens. This means it will have to reroute all its data internally, rather than relying on servers abroad.

The test is key to a proposed “sovereign internet” law currently working its way through Russia’s government. It looks likely to be eventually voted through and signed into law by President Vladimir Putin, though it has stalled in parliament for now.

Pulling an iron curtain down over the internet is a simple idea, but don’t be fooled: it’s a fiendishly difficult technical challenge to get right. It is also going to be very expensive. The project’s initial cost has been set at $38 million by Russia’s financial watchdog, but it’s likely to require far more funding than that. One of the authors of the plan has said it’ll be more like $304 million, Bloomberg reports, but even that figure, industry experts say, won’t be enough to get the system up and running, let alone maintain it.

Not only that, but it has already proved deeply unpopular with the general public. An estimated 15,000 people took to the streets in Moscow earlier this month to protest the law, one of the biggest demonstrations in years.

Operation disconnect

So how will Russia actually disconnect itself from the global internet? “It is unclear what the ‘disconnect test’ might entail,” says Andrew Sullivan, president and CEO of the Internet Society. All we know is that if it passes, the new law will require the nation’s internet service providers (ISPs) to use only exchange points inside the country that are approved by Russia’s telecoms regulator, Roskomnadzor.

These exchange points are where internet service providers connect with each other. It’s where their cabling meets at physical locations to exchange traffic. These locations are overseen by organizations known as internet exchange providers (IXPs). Russia’s largest IXP is in Moscow, connecting cities in Russia’s east but also Riga in neighboring Latvia.

MSK-IX, as this exchange point is known, is one of the world’s largest. It connects over 500 different ISPs and handles over 140 gigabits of throughput during peak hours on weekdays. There are six other internet exchange points in Russia, spanning most of its 11 time zones. Many ISPs also use exchanges that are physically located in neighboring countries or that are owned by foreign companies. These would now be off limits. Once this stage is completed, it would provide Russia with a literal, physical “on/off switch” to decide whether its internet is shielded from the outside world or kept open.

What’s in a name?

As well as rerouting its ISPs, Russia will also have to unplug from the global domain name system (DNS) so traffic cannot be rerouted through any exchange points that are not inside Russia.

The DNS is basically a phone book for the internet: when you type, for example, “google.com” into your browser, your computer uses the DNS to translate this domain name into an IP address, which identifies the correct server on the internet to send the request. If one server won’t respond to a request, another will step in. Traffic behaves rather like water—it will seek any gap it can to flow through.

“The creators of the DNS wanted to create a system able to work even when bits of it stopped working, regardless of whether the decision to break parts of it was deliberate or accidental,” says Brad Karp, a computer scientist at University College London. This in-built resilience in the underlying structure of the internet will make Russia’s plan even harder to carry out.

The actual mechanics of the DNS are operated by a wide variety of organizations, but a majority of the “root servers,” which are its foundational layer, are run by groups in the US. Russia sees this as a strategic weakness and wants to create its own alternative, setting up an entire new network of its own root servers.

“An alternate DNS can be used to create an alternate reality for the majority of Russian internet users,” says Ameet Naik, an expert on internet monitoring for the software company ThousandEyes. “Whoever controls this directory controls the internet.” Thus, if Russia can create its own DNS, it will have at least a semblance of control over the internet within its borders.

This won’t be easy, says Sullivan. It will involve configuring tens of thousands of systems, and it will be difficult, if not impossible, to identify all the different access points citizens use to get online (their laptops, smartphones, iPads, and so on). Some of them will be using servers abroad, such as Google’s Public DNS, which Russia simply won’t be able to replicate—so the connection will fail when a Russian user tries to access them.

If Russia can successfully set up its own DNS infrastructure across the country and compel its ISPs to use it, then Russian users are likely not to notice, unless they try to access a website that’s censored. For example, a user trying to connect to facebook.com could be redirected to vk.com, which is a Russian social-media service with an uncanny resemblance to Facebook.

This coming test—no official date has been given— will show us whether the necessary preparation has been done. For the West, it’s important not to underestimate the Russian state’s will, or ability, to make sure it happens.

Resilience and control

The purpose, the Kremlin says, is to make Russia’s internet independent and easier to defend against attacks from abroad. To begin with, it could help Russia resist existing sanctions from the US and the EU, and any potential future measures. It also makes sense to make the internet inside your country accessible in the event it gets physically severed from the rest of the world. For example, in 2008 there were three separate instances of major damage to the internet’s physical cabling under the sea (blamed on ships’ anchors), which cut off access for users in the Middle East, India, and Singapore. If the affected countries had been able to reroute traffic, this disruption might have been avoided.

Many observers see the move as part of Russia’s long tradition of trying to control the flow of information between citizens. Russia has already passed legislation requiring search engines to delete some results, and in 2014 it obliged social networks to store Russian users’ data on servers inside the country. It has also banned encrypted messaging apps like Telegram. Just this week, Russia’s government signed into law two new vaguely worded bills that make it a crime to “disrespect the state” or spread “fake news” online. The new plan to reroute Russian traffic is an “escalation,” says Sergey Sanovich, a Russian researcher at Stanford who specializes in online censorship. “I’d say it’s a dangerous escalation,” he adds.

Photo of demonstrators shouting and hold signs during the Free Internet rally


ASSOCIATED PRESS
If so, it’s an escalation that has been a long time coming. The conversation between ISPs and the security services has been going on for more than two decades, according to Keir Giles, an expert on Russian security who works for the think tank Chatham House. Security officials in Russia have always seen the internet as more of a threat than an opportunity.

“Russia wants to be able to do this while insulating itself from the consequences, by preemptively cutting itself off from global infrastructure,” Giles says.

If Russia is seeking inspiration, it need just look east. China has been terrifically successful in shaping the online experience for its citizens to its advantage. However, China decided to exert a high degree of control over the development of the internet while it was at a nascent stage. Russia was preoccupied at that time with the collapse of the Soviet Union, so it is quite late to the party. China embedded the homegrown ISP and DNS infrastructure that Russia hopes to construct way back in the early 2000s. Trying to impose this architecture retrospectively is an awful lot harder. “China took control very early on, and decided that all traffic in and out must be controlled and regulated,” says Naik.

The fallout

In contrast, Russian businesses and citizens are firmly enmeshed in the global internet and use a lot more foreign services, such as Microsoft cloud tools, than Chinese people do. It’s not yet clear what impact the disconnection will have on these, but it’s possible that if the plug is pulled on external traffic routes, Russian citizens may lose access to them. While many cloud services can “mirror” their content in different regions, none of the major cloud services (Microsoft, Google or Amazon Web Services) have data centers based in Russia. Replicating these services within Russia’s borders is not trivial and would require significant investment and time, says Naik. The coming test might be intended to address this issue, according to Sullivan.

Another potential problem is that many Russian ISPs carry traffic on behalf of other companies or ISPs, with reciprocal arrangements that they carry traffic for Russian ISPs too. If it’s done incorrectly, Russia’s plan means a “whole bunch of the traffic going in and out of Russia will just fall into a black hole,” says Naik.

If the experiment goes wrong and large parts of the internet go down in Russia, it could cost the nation’s economy dearly (disconnecting from the internet has been incredibly costly for countries that have experienced it, deliberately or otherwise). That doesn’t mean the Kremlin won’t go ahead with it anyway, Giles believes.

If it happens, don't expect Russians to hand over their internet rights freely: as in China, it’s likely that determined, tech-savvy citizens will be able to exploit any weaknesses in the system and circumvent it. For example, during protests in Turkey, people shared ways to access the global DNS directly, thus thwarting their government’s block on social-media websites.

One recent event that may have given Russia more impetus to push forward with the plan is the hacking by the US Cyber Command of the Internet Research Agency, the infamous Russian “troll factory” that allegedly used social media to sow division in the US during the 2016 election.

“The threat is real. The number of people who access antigovernment internet content is growing,” says Kirill Gusov, a journalist and political expert in Moscow. The government controls the media and television, but the internet remains beyond its grasp. “I’d not be surprised if the FSB [the successor to the KGB] approached Putin and reported on this attack, which coincided with their desire to suppress internet freedom because they are losing control over society,” he says.

Though it’s still not clear when if ever the law will become a reality, the Russian government isn’t known for being flexible or responsive to public pressure. It’s far more likely to be delayed than dead.
 
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Desire Lines

cheese afficionado
True & Honest Fan
kiwifarms.net
posting a part of the article i was able to screencap by using refresh and a reworded broken english version i found on some shitty site because OP is a faggot
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Within the subsequent two weeks, Russia is planning to try one thing no different nation has tried earlier than. It’s going to check whether or not it will possibly disconnect from the remainder of the world electronically whereas conserving the web working for its residents. This implies it must reroute all its information internally, slightly than counting on servers overseas.

The take a look at is vital to a proposed “sovereign web” legislation at the moment working its means by way of Russia’s authorities. It seems prone to be ultimately voted by way of and signed into legislation by President Vladimir Putin, although it has stalled in parliament for now.

Pulling an iron curtain down over the web is a straightforward concept, however don’t be fooled: it’s a fiendishly tough technical problem to get proper. Additionally it is going to be very costly. The mission’s preliminary price has been set at $38 millionby Russia’s monetary watchdog, however it’s prone to require much more funding than that. One of many authors of the plan has mentioned it’ll be extra like $304 million, Bloomberg reviews, however even that determine, trade specialists say, gained’t be sufficient to get the system up and working, not to mention preserve it.

Not solely that, however it has already proved deeply unpopular with most people. An estimated 15,000 folks took to the streets in Moscow earlier this month to protest the legislation, one of many greatest demonstrations in years.

Operation disconnect

So how will Russia really disconnect itself from the worldwide web? “It’s unclear what the ‘disconnect take a look at’ would possibly entail,” says Andrew Sullivan, president and CEO of the Web Society. All we all know is that if it passes, the brand new legislation would require the nation’s web service suppliers (ISPs) to make use of solely alternate factors contained in the nation which might be accepted by Russia’s telecoms regulator, Roskomnadzor.

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These alternate factors are the place web service suppliers join with one another. It’s the place their cabling meets at bodily areas to alternate site visitors. These areas are overseen by organizations referred to as web alternate suppliers (IXPs). Russia’s largest IXP is in Moscow, connecting cities in Russia’s east but additionally Riga in neighboring Latvia.

MSK-IX, as this alternate level is understood, is likely one of the world’s largest. It connects over 500 completely different ISPs and handles over 140 gigabits of throughput throughout peak hours on weekdays. There are six different web alternate factors in Russia, spanning most of its 11 time zones. Many ISPs additionally use exchanges which might be bodily situated in neighboring international locations or which might be owned by international firms. These would now be off limits. As soon as this stage is accomplished, it will present Russia with a literal, bodily “on/off change” to determine whether or not its web is shielded from the skin world or stored open.

What’s in a reputation?

In addition to rerouting its ISPs, Russia may even should unplug from the worldwide area title system (DNS) so site visitors can’t be rerouted by way of any alternate factors that aren’t inside Russia.

The DNS is mainly a cellphone e book for the web: whenever you sort, for instance, “google.com” into your browser, your laptop makes use of the DNS to translate this area title into an IP tackle, which identifies the proper server on the web to ship the request. If one server gained’t reply to a request, one other will step in. Site visitors behaves slightly like water—it’ll search any hole it will possibly to move by way of.

“The creators of the DNS wished to create a system in a position to work even when bits of it stopped working, no matter whether or not the choice to interrupt elements of it was deliberate or unintentional,” says Brad Karp, a pc scientist at College School London. This in-built resilience within the underlying construction of the web will make Russia’s plan even tougher to hold out.

The precise mechanics of the DNS are operated by all kinds of organizations, however a majority of the “root servers,” that are its foundational layer, are run by teams within the US. Russia sees this as a strategic weak spot and needs to create its personal various, establishing a complete new community of its personal root servers.

“An alternate DNS can be utilized to create an alternate actuality for almost all of Russian web customers,” says Ameet Naik, an professional on web monitoring for the software program firm ThousandEyes. “Whoever controls this listing controls the web.” Thus, if Russia can create its personal DNS, it’ll have a minimum of a semblance of management over the web inside its borders.

This gained’t be straightforward, says Sullivan. It should contain configuring tens of hundreds of techniques, and it is going to be tough, if not unimaginable, to determine all of the completely different entry factors residents use to get on-line (their laptops, smartphones, iPads, and so forth). A few of them might be utilizing servers overseas, resembling Google’s Public DNS, which Russia merely gained’t have the ability to replicate—so the connection will fail when a Russian person tries to entry them.

If Russia can efficiently arrange its personal DNS infrastructure throughout the nation and compel its ISPs to make use of it, then Russian customers are probably to not discover, until they attempt to entry an internet site that’s censored. For instance, a person making an attempt to hook up with fb.com may very well be redirected to vk.com, which is a Russian social-media service with an uncanny resemblance to Fb.

This coming take a look at—no official date has been given— will present us whether or not the required preparation has been accomplished. For the West, it’s necessary to not underestimate the Russian state’s will, or means, to ensure it occurs.

Resilience and management

The aim, the Kremlin says, is to make Russia’s web unbiased and simpler to defend towards assaults from overseas. To start with, it may assist Russia resist current sanctions from the US and the EU, and any potential future measures. It additionally is smart to make the web inside your nation accessible within the occasion it will get bodily severed from the remainder of the world. For instance, in 2008 there have been three separate cases of main harm to the web’s bodily cabling below the ocean (blamed on ships’ anchors), which reduce off entry for customers within the Center East, India, and Singapore. If the affected international locations had been in a position to reroute site visitors, this disruption might need been prevented.

Many observers see the transfer as a part of Russia’s lengthy custom of making an attempt to regulate the move of data between residents. Russia has already handed laws requiring search engines like google and yahoo to delete some outcomes, and in 2014 it obliged social networks to retailer Russian customers’ information on servers contained in the nation. It has additionally banned encrypted messaging apps like Telegram. Simply this week, Russia’s authorities signed into legislation two new vaguely worded payments that make it against the law to “disrespect the state” or unfold “faux information” on-line. The brand new plan to reroute Russian site visitors is an “escalation,” says Sergey Sanovich, a Russian researcher at Stanford who makes a speciality of on-line censorship. “I’d say it’s a harmful escalation,” he provides.

Photo of demonstrators shouting and hold signs during the Free Internet rally

ASSOCIATED PRESS

If that’s the case, it’s an escalation that has been a very long time coming. The dialog between ISPs and the safety providers has been happening for greater than 20 years, based on Keir Giles, an professional on Russian safety who works for the assume tank Chatham Home. Safety officers in Russia have at all times seen the web as extra of a menace than a possibility.

“Russia desires to have the ability to do that whereas insulating itself from the results, by preemptively chopping itself off from world infrastructure,” Giles says.

If Russia is in search of inspiration, it want simply look east. China has been terrifically profitable in shaping the net expertise for its residents to its benefit. Nonetheless, China determined to exert a excessive diploma of management over the event of the web whereas it was at a nascent stage. Russia was preoccupied at the moment with the collapse of the Soviet Union, so it’s fairly late to the celebration. China embedded the homegrown ISP and DNS infrastructure that Russia hopes to assemble means again within the early 2000s. Attempting to impose this structure retrospectively is an terrible lot tougher. “China took management very early on, and determined that each one site visitors out and in should be managed and controlled,” says Naik.

The fallout

In distinction, Russian companies and residents are firmly enmeshed within the world web and use much more international providers, resembling Microsoft cloud instruments, than Chinese language folks do. It’s not but clear what influence the disconnection could have on these, however it’s potential that if the plug is pulled on exterior site visitors routes, Russian residents could lose entry to them. Whereas many cloud providers can “mirror” their content material in numerous areas, not one of the main cloud providers (Microsoft, Google or Amazon Internet Companies) have information facilities based mostly in Russia. Replicating these providers inside Russia’s borders shouldn’t be trivial and would require important funding and time, says Naik. The approaching take a look at could be supposed to handle this challenge, based on Sullivan.

One other potential drawback is that many Russian ISPs carry site visitors on behalf of different firms or ISPs, with reciprocal preparations that they carry site visitors for Russian ISPs too. If it’s accomplished incorrectly, Russia’s plan means a “entire bunch of the site visitors going out and in of Russia will simply fall right into a black gap,” says Naik.

If the experiment goes mistaken and huge elements of the web go down in Russia, it may price the nation’s economic system dearly (disconnecting from the web has been extremely expensive for international locations which have skilled it, intentionally or in any other case). That doesn’t imply the Kremlin gained’t go forward with it anyway, Giles believes.

If it occurs, do not count on Russians at hand over their web rights freely: as in China, it’s probably that decided, tech-savvy residents will have the ability to exploit any weaknesses within the system and circumvent it. For instance, throughout protests in Turkey, folks shared methods to entry the worldwide DNS immediately, thus thwarting their authorities’s block on social-media web sites.

One latest occasion which will have given Russia extra impetus to push ahead with the plan is the hacking by the US Cyber Command of the Web Analysis Company, the notorious Russian “troll manufacturing unit” that allegedly used social media to sow division within the US through the 2016 election.

“The menace is actual. The quantity of people that entry antigovernment web content material is rising,” says Kirill Gusov, a journalist and political professional in Moscow. The federal government controls the media and tv, however the web stays past its grasp. “I’d not be stunned if the FSB [the successor to the KGB] approached Putin and reported on this assault, which coincided with their need to suppress web freedom as a result of they’re shedding management over society,” he says.

Although it’s nonetheless not clear when if ever the legislation will turn into a actuality, the Russian authorities isn’t identified for being versatile or conscious of public strain. It’s much more prone to be delayed than lifeless.
 

goku_black

kiwifarms.net
good for the russians, but hopefully the country's like the EU, UK, AU and NZ do not do it.

(edit) Nulls lives close to russia doesn't he (edit)


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(edit) omg the russian superhackers will save the day for facebook and twitter. :story: (edit)
 
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sasazuka

Standing in the school hallway.
kiwifarms.net
I, of course, take everything Elon Musk proposes with a mountain-sized grain of salt since his ideas are often at best impractical or downright impossible, but, if Musk gets his constellation of thousands of small satellites in low orbit around the world offering global wireless Internet, would Russia just shoot down all of those satellites anyone in Russia could connect to just to protect their digital iron curtain, should they disconnect themselves from the global Internet?
 

millais

The Yellow Rose of Victoria, Texas
kiwifarms.net
I, of course, take everything Elon Musk proposes with a mountain-sized grain of salt since his ideas are often at best impractical or downright impossible, but, if Musk gets his constellation of thousands of small satellites in low orbit around the world offering global wireless Internet, would Russia just shoot down all of those satellites anyone in Russia could connect to just to protect their digital iron curtain, should they disconnect themselves from the global Internet?
They could just jam the signals, they are very good at that kind of thing after all the Cold War experience in jamming Western shortwave and telecoms broadcast.
 

Gone_Fission

kiwifarms.net
I, of course, take everything Elon Musk proposes with a mountain-sized grain of salt since his ideas are often at best impractical or downright impossible, but, if Musk gets his constellation of thousands of small satellites in low orbit around the world offering global wireless Internet, would Russia just shoot down all of those satellites anyone in Russia could connect to just to protect their digital iron curtain, should they disconnect themselves from the global Internet?
Shooting down any satellites would be potentially catastrophic due to all the space debris obliterating large numbers of other satellites and making space travel far more dangerous.
 
Reactions: sasazuka

Degenerated

Artesté
kiwifarms.net
I think a more likely response would be something diplomatic that alters the paths of said satellites so none of them go over russia. Or to have them block russian connections.
 

HoTTaKe

109 countries and 1 frigid, lifeless spacerock!
kiwifarms.net
I tried to sign up for VK and after I verified my account - I got blocked immediately. Damnit I just wanted to see all of that sexy Russian ass and troll some street-squatters. Internet Balkanization is definitely not pro-lulz.
 

Alec Benson Leary

Creator of Asperchu
Christorical Figure
kiwifarms.net
Those of you smirking at this please remember that silicon valley also wants to shut off America to all of the internet except for what they personally approve of, which doesn't include our august community.

True freedom really is as simple as saying if the state is doing nothing wrong then there's nothing wrong with letting the people hear criticism from outside the state.
 

pwnest injun

kiwifarms.net
The USA has a way to turn off the internet in an emergency. Seems like this is just a way to put the internet into safe mode if necessary.
 
Reactions: Cho Chan

Freddy Freaker

2 Dollars per call
kiwifarms.net
https://www.networkworld.com/article/3385050/russia-demands-access-to-vpn-providers-servers.html

The Russian censorship agency Roskomnadzor has ordered 10 VPN service providers to link their servers in Russia to its network in order to stop users within the country from reaching banned sites.

If they fail to comply, their services will be blocked, according to a machine translation of the order.

The 10 VPN providers are ExpressVPN, HideMyAss!, Hola VPN, IPVanish, Kaspersky Secure Connection, KeepSolid, NordVPN, OpenVPN, TorGuard, and VyprVPN.

In response at least five of the 10 – Express VPN, IPVanish, KeepSolid, NordVPN, TorGuard and – say they are tearing down their servers in Russia but continuing to offer their services to Russian customers if they can reach the providers’ servers located outside of Russia. And at least one provider, Kaspersky, which is based in Moscow, says it will comply with the order. The others could not be reached for this article.

IPVanish characterized the order as another phase of “Russia’s censorship agenda” dating back to 2017 when the government enacted a law forbidding the use of VPNs to access blocked Web sites.

“Up until recently, however, they had done little to enforce such rules,” IPVanish says in its blog. “These new demands mark a significant escalation.”

The reactions of those not complying are similar. Tor Guard says it has taken steps to remove all its physical servers in Russia, and has wiped clean its servers in St. Petersburg and Moscow. It is also cutting off business with data centers in the region

“We would like to be clear that this removal of servers was a voluntary decision by TorGuard management and no equipment seizure occurred,” TorGuard says in its blog. “We do not store any logs so even if servers were compromised it would be impossible for customer’s data to be exposed.”

TorGuard says it is deploying more servers in adjacent countries to protect fast download speeds for customers in the region.

IPVanish says it has faced similar demands from Russia before and responded similarly. In 2016, a new Russian law required online service providers to store customers’ private data for a year. “In response, we removed all physical server presence in Russia, while still offering Russians encrypted connections via servers outside of Russian borders,” the company says. “That decision was made in accordance with our strict zero-logs policy.”

KeepSolid says it had no servers in Russia, but it not comply with the order to link with Roskomnadzor's network. KeepSolid says it will draw on its experience dealing with the Great Firewall of China to fight the censorship attempt. "Our team developed a special KeepSolid Wise protocol which is designed for use in countries where the use of VPN is blocked," a spokesperson for the company said in an email statement.

NordVPN says it’s shutting down all its Russian servers and all of them will be shredded as of April 1. The company says in a blog that some of its customers who connected to its Russian servers without use of its application will have to reconfigure their devices to insure their security. Those customers using the app won’t have to do anything differently because the option to connect to Russia has been removed.

ExpressVPN is also not complying with the order. "As a matter of principle, ExpressVPN will never cooperate with efforts to censor the internet by any country," said the company's vice presidentn Harold Li in an email, but he expected that blocking traffic will be ineffective. "We epect that Russian internet users will still be able to f ind means of accdessing the sites and services they want, albeit perhaps with some additional effort."

Kaspersky Labs says it will comply with the Russian order and responded to emailed questions about its reaction with this written response:

“Kaspersky Lab is aware of the new requirements from Russian regulators for VPN providers operating in the country. These requirements oblige VPN providers to restrict access to a number of websites that were listed and prohibited by the Russian Government in the country’s territory. As a responsible company, Kaspersky Lab complies with the laws of all the countries where it operates, including Russia. At the same time, the new requirements don’t affect the main purpose of Kaspersky Secure Connection which protects user privacy and ensures confidentiality and protection against data interception, for example, when using open Wi-Fi networks, making online payments at cafes, airports or hotels. Additionally, the new requirements are relevant to VPN use only in Russian territory and do not concern users in other countries.”
 
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